The First of Eight
1100 Henry I was crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey.
Battle of Stirling Bridge
1305 Sir William Wallace, Scottish hero and champion of Scottish independence who beat Edward I at the battle of Stirling Bridge, was captured by the English and later executed as a traitor.
St John’s, Newfoundland
1583 English soldier and navigator Sir Humphrey Gilbert (half-brother of Sir Walter Raleigh) established the first English colony in North America, at what is now St John’s, Newfoundland and claimed it for Elizabeth I.
1620 The Mayflower departed from Southampton on its first attempt to reach North America but the sister ship, the Speedwell developed a leak. It had to be refitted at Dartmouth and, after further leaks (or possibly sabotage) the Mayflower made the 60 day crossing alone.
The Whipping Boy
1792 The death of Lord Frederick North, British Prime Minister whose indecisive leadership led to the loss of the American colonies.
The Royal Telegraph
1858 The first transatlantic cable was officially opened, with Queen Victoria sending a telegraphic message to US President James Buchanan.
1901 Britain’s first cinema, the Mohawk, opened in Islington, north London. Films were accompanied by the 16-piece Fonobian Orchestra. At the height of their popularity in the 1940s, cinemas in Britain had average weekly attendances of 30 million.
Do You Speak Welsh?
1925 The political party Plaid Cymru was formed with the aim of disseminating knowledge of the Welsh language which was, at the time, in danger of dying out.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
1963 A Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed in Moscow by Russia, the United States and Britain. Under the treaty, nuclear tests in the Earth’s atmosphere, in space or under the sea were outlawed.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but it has not entered into force as of May 2012.
1970 Hull City and Manchester United were tied 1-1 after extra time, and for the first time in an English first division football match penalty kicks were used to break the tie. United won 4-3 on penalties.
1976 The clock overlooking the Houses of Parliament stopped for the first time in 117 years.
RIP Richard Burton
1984 Richard Burton, Welsh actor died. He was aged 58.
The Royal Jockey
1986 Princess Anne rode Gulfland to win the 3.45 at Redcar; her first victory as a jockey.