More Revolting Peasants
1381 Richard II met leaders of Wat Tyler’s Peasants’ Revolt on Blackheath. The Tower of London was stormed by rebels who entered without resistance. The revolt later came to be seen as a mark of the beginning of the end of serfdom in medieval England. Although the revolt itself was a failure it increased awareness in the upper classes of the need for the reform of feudalism in England and the appalling misery felt by the lower classes as a result of their enforced near-slavery.
The Battle of Naseby
1645 The Battle of Naseby (Northamptonshire) was fought. It was the key battle of the first English Civil War. 12,000 Royalist forces of King Charles I were beaten by 15,000 Parliamentarian soldiers commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell.
Mutiny on the Bounty
1789 English Captain William Bligh and 18 others, cast adrift from the H.M.S. Bounty, reached Timor after travelling nearly 4,000 miles in a small, open boat. The Bounty had been sailing from Tahiti when crew members mutinied.
1822 Englishman Charles Babbage proposed an automatic, mechanical calculator (he called it a difference engine). He is considered a ‘father of the computer’ and is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex designs.
1919 At 14.13 GMT, Captain John Alcock and Lt. Arthur Whitten-Brown took off from Newfoundland on the first non-stop transatlantic flight to Galway, Ireland, in a Vickers Vimy. They landed safely 16 hours later, on the 15th and claimed a £10,000 prize from the Daily Mail. They were eventually knighted by King George V. When Alcock was killed in an air crash in France in December 1919 his partner, Brown, never flew again.
1944 World War II: After several failed attempts, the British Army abandoned Operation Perch, its plan to capture the German-occupied town of Caen. Caen was a major Allied objective in the early stages of the invasion of northwest Europe but a combination of fierce German resistance and failures at the British command level foiled the operation before its objectives were achieved.
Farewell, Mr Baird
1946 John Logie Baird, Scottish inventor who developed television died.
The Last of Bobby Charlton
1970 Manchester United footballer Bobby Charlton played his 106th and last international match for England against West Germany in the World Cup finals in Mexico. His first game had been in April 1958 against Scotland.
Surrender at Port Stanley
1982 Argentine forces surrendered at Port Stanley, ending the Falklands War. 255 Britons and 652 Argentines died in the conflict.
Mrs Chief Constable
1995 Pauline Clare, 47, became the first woman to be appointed chief constable in Britain.
The Honours List
1997 Queen Elizabeth II birthday honours included a George Medal for teacher Lisa Potts, survivor of a machete attack at her school (1996) and a posthumous Queen’s Gallantry medal for headmaster Philip Lawrence murdered outside his school in December 1995.