1503 James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor were married by Pope Alexander VI. A ‘Treaty of Everlasting Peace’ between Scotland and England was signed on that occasion. The everlasting peace lasted just ten years.
Splitting the Faith
1533 The Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer declared that the marriage of King Henry VIII of England to Anne Boleyn was valid. Shortly afterwards, the Pope decreed sentences of excommunication against both Henry and Cranmer. Subsequently the first break between the Church of England and Rome took place and the Church of England was brought under the King’s control.
The Spanish Armada
1588 The Spanish Armada, with 130 ships and 30,000 men, set sail from Lisbon heading for the English Channel.
Happy Birthday, George I
1660 King George I was born. He succeeded Queen Anne in 1714 but spent most of his reign in Hanover, never having mastered the English language.
Happy Birthday, Mr. Pitt
1759 William Pitt the Younger, British politician, was born. He became the youngest ever British prime minister at the age of 24.
Death of a Chippendale
1779 Thomas Chippendale, English cabinet-maker died.
Birth of a Library
1842 Britain’s first public library opened, in Frederick Street, Salford.
The Tenant of Wildfell Hall
1849 The death, at the age of 28, of Anne Brontë, English novelist, poet and author of Agnes Grey and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. She is buried in St. Mary’s churchyard, Scarborough, beneath the castle walls, and overlooking the bay.
1907 The first Isle of Man TT (Tourist Trophy) motor cycle races were held. The winner was Charlie Collier on his pedal assisted Matchless, at an average speed of 38.22 mph. It was argued that rival Jack Marshall, riding a Triumph, would have won if he’d fitted pedals, and the following year pedals were banned.
Happy Birthday, Mr. Fleming
1908 The birth of Ian Fleming, English author of the James Bond novels.
Capture of Lord Haw-Haw
1945 World War II: the English broadcaster of Nazi propaganda, William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) was captured near Hamburg. He was later tried for treason, found guilty, and hanged.
1951 BBC radio broadcast the first edition of The Goon Show, starring Peter Sellers, Spike Milligan and Harry Secombe.
1967 Sir Francis Chichester arrived in Plymouth on his yacht, Gipsy Moth IV, after completing his solo voyage around the world.
The Maiden Voyage
1990 The Maiden arrived in Southampton, completing the Whitbread around-the-world yacht race. The first ever all-woman crew was skippered by Tracy Edwards.